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India’s Solar Policy: JNNSM

The National Solar Mission is an initiative of the Government of India and State Governments to promote solar power. The mission is one of the several policies of the National Action Plan on Climate Change. The program was inaugurated as the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 11 January 2010.with a target of 20 GW by 2022. This was later increased to 100 GW by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in the 2015 Union budget of India. India increased its utility solar power generation capacity by nearly 5 times from 2,650 MW on 26 May 2014 to 12,288.83 MW on 31 March 2017. The country added 9,362.65 MW in 2017–18, the highest of any year. The original target of 20 GW was surpassed in 2018 (counting only utility installed capacity), four years ahead of the 2022 deadline. India had a total rooftop solar installed capacity of 6.1 GW as of 30 June 2021. The objective of the National Solar Mission is to establish India as a global leader in solar energy, by creating the policy conditions for its diffusion across the country as quickly as possible. Under the original plan, the Government aimed to achieve a total installed solar capacity of 20 GW by 2022. This was proposed to be achieved in three phase. The first phase comprised the period from 2010 to 2013, the first year of the 12th five-year plan. The second phase extended up to 2017, while the third phase would have been the 13th five-year plan (2017–22). Targets were set as 1.4 GW in the first phase, 11–15 GW by the end of the second phase and 22 GW by the end of the third phase in 2022. Increased  100 GW is further divided into 40 GW of solar rooftop, 40 GW of Ultra mega solar power projects (500MW or more) and 20 GW is independent solar powerplant (miscellaneous). Based upon availability of land and solar radiation, the potential Solar power in the country has been assessed to be around 750 GWp.

The Government revised the target from 20 GW to 100 GW on 1 July 2015. To reach 100 GW by 2022, the yearly targets from 2015 to 2016 onwards were also revised upwards. India had an installed solar capacity of 161 MW on 31 March 2010, about 2 and half months after the mission was launched on 11 January. By 31 March 2015, three months before the targets were revised, India had achieved an installed solar capacity of 3,744 MW.

The ministry of new and renewable energy (MNRE) set target of 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030. The last target was 175 GW out of which 100 GW by solar energy by the end of year 2022. In the first phase of JNNSM (2010-2013) 50 rupees cess on per tonne of coal imposed on coal producing companies. In second phase (2013-2017) this cess was increased to 400 rupees (2014) and this cess was named as clean environment cess. This amount of cess was transferred into national clean energy fund. The money collected by this was funded for next phase (2017-2020). In 2013 GOI came with proposal of domestic content requirement for financial support of solar power producer. Two conditions were imposed on solar power producers. First one was the government (central/state/PSUs) is buyer and second one was a certain % of solar panel must be bought by domestic solar companies.

Rooftop Phase-I of this programme was launched on 30th December, 2015 in which incentives and subsidies were provided for residential, institutional and social sectors. For Government sector, achievement linked incentives were also provided. Rooftop Phase-II was launched in February 2019 with a target of achieving cumulative capacity of 40,000 MW by the year 2022. Under rooftop solar scheme, Central Financial Assistance (CFA) of 40% for RTS systems up to 3 kW capacity and 20% for capacity beyond 3 kW and up to 10 kW is provided. For Group Housing Societies (GHS) and Residents Welfare Associations (RWA), CFA is limited to 20% for RTS plants for supply of power to common facilities. So far over 3.7 GW capacity of RTS capacity has been estimated to have been installed in the country and over 2.6 GW capacity is under installation in the residential segment. The Ministry introduced the Solar Parks programme with the objective of facilitating solar project developers to set up projects in a plug-and-play model. The scheme for development of solar parks has a target capacity of 40 GW. All States and Union Territories are eligible for getting benefitted under the scheme. Solar parks are being developed by agencies of Central/State Governments, Joint Ventures between agencies of Central and State Governments and also by private entrepreneurs.

In Off grid GOI’s initiatives are PM- KUSUM, solar street lights/Atal jyoti yojana /AJAY (3 lakhs), Solar study lamps (25 lakhs), 100 MWp of off grid solar power projects, 7 million study lamps for school going children (50% unelectrified households /50% kerosene using households) and scale up of excess to clean energy for rural livelihood (solar energy for supporting poultry, horticulture, solar cold storage).

PM-KUSUM has three components:

1: 17.5 lakh stand-alone isolated solar pumps with capacity up to 75 Hp for agriculture sector

2: Solarization of 10 lakh grid connected pumps with capacity up to 75 Hp.

3: 10 GW of grid connected solar power of size 2 MW.

For solar rooftop SARAL INDEX (State rooftop solar attractiveness) is initiated by MNRE. In this initiative rank is given to the Indian states for their policy initiative for solar power performance. NET metering concept is also introduced. SECI was established in 2011 whose purpose is to do execution of solar power project in India.

As on 31.12.2020, a total solar power capacity installed is 37.46 GW. In addition, tenders of around 36.69 GW are in pipeline for which Letter of Intent (LoI) has been issued but not commissioned and for around 18.47 GW tenders have been issued but LoI are yet to be issued. Thus, it is expected to fully achieve the target of 100 GW by 2022. It is expected that the solar power projects of around 40 GW cumulative capacity will be commissioned by March, 2021.

Karnataka(7.328 GW), Rajasthan(5.389 GW) and Tamil Nadu(4.315 GW) are top performing states in the field of solar energy installed capacity.


The economic viability of green Ammonia production

Ammonia is a major source of natural gas consumption in its production as a chemical. About 75% of ammonia is used in fertilizer industries while the balance of 25% is used in other chemical industries. Globally ammonia accounts for about 1% of the GHG emissions and is one of the significant sources of CO2 emissions.
While globally we are focusing on green hydrogen production there are issues in handling the large volumes of hydrogen in terms of safety as well as transport. Hydrogen is a major ingredient in the production of ammonia if you produce hydrogen through the solar through the electrolysis process this hydrogen can be used in the production of ammonia which can be available in the liquid form and easy to transport and safe to handle.
As per the recent IHS Markit report, the typical cost of green ammonia production is about $500 per metric ton compared to the average cost of Green ammonia production, which ranges from about $200-$300 per metric ton. This is considering the power cost at about 4 Cents/kWh, by 2030, we are expecting that green power through solar and wind power will be available at t2 Cents/kWh and the green ammonia production cost can be brought down to about $300 per metric ton. Considering this as a new technology the carbon credit benefits will also be available which will lead to the green ammonia availability at $200 per metric ton which is going to be lower than the typical green ammonia production.
Indian companies such as Avaada have already announced large investments of Rs.40,000 crore in the production of green ammonia. One of the facilities will be recently coming up in Kota Rajasthan.
Apart from its uses in agriculture as a fertilizer and in industry, green ammonia is expected to use as a green fuel for combustion engines as well as for power generation. Especially in marine vehicles and long-haul vehicles where batteries cannot be used due to low energy density green ammonia can be a game-changing fuel considering a very high energy density.


Le pregunté Su para esperar Fuera, pero ella Mencionó En realidad está Activa . ¿Qué está pasando?

Lector Pregunta:

Me encontré en un concierto que incluye amigos solo quién respetó esta niña en otro sección de la área.

comenzamos bailar, mantener brazos y casi todo lo que ocurre antes de besar. Intercambiamos números y yo también le dije debemos ir fuera.

I conocido como su al día siguiente y preguntado ella si ella quería llegar a un evento conmigo. Ella declaró ella tiene mucho esforzarse por hacer. 3 o 4 horas más tarde, nosotros vemos su paseando con un amigo. Ella luego requiere YO básicamente soy todavía probablemente esa celebración. Yo mencionado quizás pero nunca en realidad terminé rumbo.

Estoy extremadamente desconcertado. Absolutamente un oficial próximo este fin de semana, y que yo desear preguntar si ella desea elegir yo mismo.

¿Puedes ayudarme determinar qué está sucediendo por esto dama?

-Roger (Pensilvania)

Dr. Respuesta de Wendy Walsh:

Estimado Roger:

Es difícil informar qué estás haciendo con este específico niña. Ella puede sufrir incómoda usted dos habían sido literalmente presionando sobre primera conferencia y ella no sabe cómo describe ella quiere disminuir situaciones abajo.

O podría disfrutar tú y ya tienen tenido esforzarme por hacer eso noche y es avergonzado tú miraste su pasear con un amigo en un segundo de paz y tranquilo.

Por fin, ella puede que posiblemente no esté interesada en ti en absoluto y se arrepiente de su coqueteo impulsivo la noche ustedes dos se encontraron.

El único método para entender seguro es generalmente ser intrépido y tener ella en convencional. Teléfono la dama y usar su sonido versus texto, y que es un acción debilucho.

Y quedarse preparado en caso ella afirma no. termine siendo cortés y dígale esta dama ya sabe. Después de lo cual avanzar.

Hay muchas fantásticas contactos mujeres León para satisfacer en el mercado. Pero como hockey fantástico Wayne Gretzky tan pronto como mencionado, “Usted negligencia completamente en el tiros nunca solo toma “.

No hay asesoramiento o psicoterapia asesoramiento: su sitio web no dar psicoterapia información. Su sitio web está destinado solo para uso por personas en busca de común información de gran interés con respecto a problemas individuos pueden enfrentarse como personas más en interacciones y relacionados temas. Material de contenido ciertamente no es destinado a cambiar o actuar como sustituto para especialista evaluación o solución. Contenidos hallazgos y opiniones realmente no deberían ser malinterpretados como particulares orientación consejo.


Alternatives To Taking Out A Payday Loans

The hard part or cons come into play when among the people close to the account does not handle finances well. Many of these hard professional are struggling to pay the bills as preserving the earth ..
Payday loan lenders online are not going to interfere with your credit report. No hard inquiries, the loan not reported as debt while it in term, no late payment negatives will be added to your credit history to lower your score. Payday loan lenders offer no credit check loans, as long as you keep making payments on the loan. Once the account has been sold off to collections, your debt will be reported to the credit bureaus. If you want to keep your credit score from being affected by a transaction with a payday loan lender, you can a) not get a loan or b) don’t default on the payoff.

The bank teller or manager will ask you for a few documents when you want to stop payment. Payday Loan Debts Wiped is one of the hundreds of things associated with He or she will want the number of the check, the date you wrote the check, the name of the payee, and the dollar amount of the check. That means you can’t just write a check to a lender, get approved and forget about the check. You should make that check accountable in your check register by asking yourself what number check it is and what the exact dollar amount is right down payday loan debts wiped to the nickels and dimes.

These are the most common tactics used by scheme companies today so that you would provide them with your credit card or bank account information. They tell you that you need to pay off a payday loan debt that you supposedly borrowed from a lender online.

From an outsiders point of view, this cycle may seem easy to avoid but for many people it is a fact of life. The people who get caught in this trap usually have good intentions as far as repaying the loan back on time but they often borrow more than they can comfortably repay in such a short period of time. Often other expenses are overlooked when they apply for the loan and once the money is in their account it is too late, there will be an automatic withdrawal from the chosen bank account in two to four weeks that can cause other checks not to clear. And the cycle begins.

If you cannot manage to pay back your short-term loan debt, a best direct lender will make every effort to contact you to work something out. Creditors will do the same, but they will also report negative money management problems to the credit bureaus. If either of these businesses doesn’t have any luck collecting the debt, they will both accept defeat and sell it off to a collections agency. Once this occurs, your credit will have a severe blow affecting the history for the next seven years as well as the credit score. Debt that falls into collections does not sit pretty on anyone’s credit.

According to the reports made about this industry, no loan at all is good. Words describing “cycle of debt”, “high interest loans” and “predatory lenders” are being reported to keep people from using the loans. Read one article about online payday loans and the writer may be trying to convince the reader how horrible the loans are. Would it be safe to assume that this writer has never experienced a need for fast cash when there are no other options available? Could you assume that this writer got information from another banking institution which receives billions of dollars in overdraft fees? Is it possible that the writer heard reports from customers who fell into further debt because the loans were not paid off in time?

For Students Deduct student loan interest on your taxes. Since 2001, the federal government has allowed students to deduct interest up to $2500 on student loans for the entire life of the loan. For specific tax advice, you should speak with a professional tax advisor.

If you have payday loan debt already and can barely afford your necessary expenses, there are payday loan consolidation programs available. Make sure you do research and go with a company that you are comfortable with and has a track record of success. If you’re more ambitious there are step by step programs available online that teach you how to settle payday loans.


The falling cost of solar is making green Ammonia an attractive fuel proposition..

Recently the Avada group has announced its investment plans of Rs 40,000 crore green ammonia manufacturing unit in Rajasthan. This is in line to the newly announced GOI green hydrogen policy of facilitating 5 Million tonnes of green Hydrogen by 2030. Green Ammonia is manufactured using Hydrogen produced through electrolysis of water using solar power. The storage and handling of Hydrogen is critical, hence the companies are exploring the production of Ammonia and use it as a fuel or a feedstock for Urea production, for which the current fuel is Natural gas. The technology has moved to the stage where green Ammonia can be produced using the solid oxide electrolysis system, which runs on the synthesis and without the need of a air separation unit. The companies such as Yera International, in Norway is replacing its 10% feedstock of Ammonia by green Ammonia. A US-based company Starfire energy is also producing the green Ammonia modular systems which will be producing the Ammonia directly from solar electricity.


NTPC and AVAADA are the winners in the 500 MW Solar bid of Maharashtra

NTPC and AVAADA are the winners of MSEDCL 500 MW solar bid in Maharashtra. The discovered tariffs are 2.82 Rs/kWh for NTPC and Rs. 2.83/kWh for AVADA solar. The project developers can implement the project interstate or intrastate depending on the locational suitability of the developers. The PPA is for 25 years. The benchmark tariff in this tender was Rs. 2.85/kWh for reverse bidding. The other participants in the bid were Energizent power, Talettutayi solar, Tata Power, and Azure power. The highest bid was by Azure power at Rs. 3.09/kWh; about 9.57% higher as compared to the benchmark tariff.

The newly discovered tariff is lower than the previously discovered tariff, a month back of the order of Rs. 2.90/kWh. AVAADA solar also bagged about 25 MW capacity in the previous bid, while the SJVNL bagged about 200 MW capacity.


Only 5% of the Li Ion batteries are recycled..

About 90% of the materials in the Li Ion batteries can be recovered. Most of Indian Li Ion batteries are going to the landfills and only 5% of the batteries are being recycled against the recycling of close to 100% of the Lead acid batteries. We can recover precious materials like Copper, Aluminium, Graphite, manganese, Cobalt, etc. There is a need to develop the supply chain and technical skills for battery recycling. We can also use the EEV battery as a second life for stationary applications.

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