India’s efforts to decarbonise the electricity sector
ndia’s efforts to reduce CO2 emissions in the electricity sector have been a topic of interest, especially with the country’s commitment to achieving its National Determined Contributions (NDC) under the Paris Agreement. India has made significant progress in promoting renewable energy sources and adopting energy efficiency measures to achieve its energy transition goals. As of 2021, India has achieved its NDC of achieving 40% of installed power generation capacity from non-fossil fuel sources, nine years in advance. The country’s non-fossil fuel installed capacity is now over 159 GW, with an additional 78 GW under installation and 25 GW under bid.
To achieve its energy transition goals, India has launched various initiatives to promote renewable energy, such as the Solar City Scheme, which aims to convert one city in each state into a Green City. As of 2021, 29 cities from 24 states have been selected, with Modhera in Gujarat already converted to a Green City. India has set ambitious goals to achieve 500 GW of non-fossil energy capacity and reduce carbon intensity by less than 45% by 2030. The country’s energy efficiency measures under the “Roadmap of Sustainable and Holistic Approach to National Energy Efficiency” (ROSHANEE) have resulted in a reduction of 103 million tons of CO2 emissions per annum through the Perform, Achieve & Trade (PAT) Scheme.
India’s energy-efficient appliances and lighting programs, such as the Standards & Labelling Programme for appliances and the Street Lighting National Programme (SLNP), have also contributed to reducing CO2 emissions by 53 million and 5.61 million tons per annum, respectively. These efforts have resulted in estimated annual energy savings of 129.87 billion kWh, reduction of CO2 emissions by 106.5 million tons per annum, and an estimated annual monetary savings of `51,945 crore in consumer electricity bills.
India’s recent introduction of the Green Day Ahead Market (GDAM) on 26 October 2021 in Power Exchange has also facilitated trading of RE Power on a day-ahead basis, supporting the integration of green energy and offering competitive price signals to market participants.
India’s efforts to promote renewable energy sources and adopt energy efficiency measures have resulted in significant reductions in CO2 emissions and energy savings. The table below summarizes the results of these initiatives.
|CO2 Emission Reduction
|Non-fossil fuel installed capacity (2021)
|Solar City Scheme
|Energy Transition Goals (by 2030)
|1 billion tonnes
|103 million tons
|Standards & Labelling Programme
|53 million tons
|LED bulbs and energy-efficient fans distribution
|106.5 million tons
|129.87 billion kWh/year
|Street Lighting National Programme
|5.61 million tons
|8.14 billion kWh/year
|Green Day Ahead Market
In conclusion, India’s efforts to reduce CO2 emissions in the electricity sector have been commendable, and the country has made significant progress towards achieving its energy transition goals. India’s commitment to renewable energy and energy efficiency measures sets an excellent example for other countries in the pursuit of sustainable development.