One Nation One Grid: Connecting India’s Power Market
In a country as vast and diverse as India, ensuring reliable access to electricity can be a challenging task. India has a complex energy landscape, with coal, hydro, and renewable energy resources unevenly distributed across the country. To overcome this challenge, the government launched the One Nation One Grid scheme in 2014. This scheme aimed to connect the entire country into one unified power market, enabling distribution companies to purchase power at the cheapest available rates from any generator in any corner of the country.
The One Nation One Grid scheme has been highly successful, adding 1,60,178 circuit kilometers of transmission lines since its launch. As of December 2021, the country has one of the largest synchronous grids in the world, running on one frequency with the capability of transferring 1,12,250 MW from one corner of the country to another. The transmission network expansion has reduced transmission congestion considerably, resulting in the discovery of a single price in the market.
One of the major benefits of the One Nation One Grid scheme is that it facilitates seamless transfer of power from power-surplus regions to power-deficit regions, optimizing the use of generation resources and meeting the demands of end consumers without any transmission issues. This is especially important as India continues to increase its renewable energy capacity, which is often located in specific regions.
Another key aspect of the One Nation One Grid scheme is the National Smart Grid Mission, launched to accelerate the development of smart grids in the country. Smart grids use information technology to monitor and manage electricity delivery more efficiently and cost-effectively, leading to improved grid reliability and resilience.
The scheme has also helped connect remote regions of the country to the national grid, providing access to 24×7 quality power. For example, with the commissioning of the 220 kV Srinagar-Leh line in January 2019, Ladakh areas got interconnected with the national electricity grid, and people in Ladakh got access to electricity from the grid.
In summary, the One Nation One Grid scheme has transformed India’s power market, providing reliable access to electricity across the country. The key features of the scheme are summarized in the table below:
|Objective||To connect the entire country into one unified power market|
|Transmission line capacity added since 2014||1,60,178 circuit kilometers|
|Transmission line capacity as of December 2021||4,52,440 circuit kilometers|
|Transformation capacity added since 2014||5,49,220 MVA|
|Transformation capacity as of December 2021||10,79,766 MVA|
|Inter-regional capacity added since 2014||76,300 MW|
|Inter-regional capacity as of December 2021||1,12,250 MW|
|Benefits||Seamless transfer of power from power-surplus regions to power-deficit regions, optimization of generation resources, and improved grid reliability and resilience through the National Smart Grid Mission.|
The One Nation One Grid scheme has been a remarkable success story in India’s energy sector. It has not only provided reliable access to electricity across the country but has also improved grid reliability and resilience, facilitating the integration of renewable energy sources. The government’s continued efforts to expand and strengthen the transmission network, along with the National Smart Grid Mission, are expected to further enhance the country’s energy security in the years to come.